Songye (Basonge, Bayembe, Songe, Wasonga),
Kifwebe male mask. In the Songye language, the term kifwebe has been given to masks representing spirits. The kifwebe society used them to ward off disaster or any threat. The mask had also the capacity to heal by means of the supernatural force it was supposed to incorporate. The masks, supplemented by a woven costume and a long beard of raffia bast, dance at various ceremonies. Mask, colors, and costume all have symbolic meaning. The dancer who wears the male mask will display aggressive and uncontrolled behavior with the aim of encouraging social conformity, whereas the dancer who wears the female mask display more gentle and controlled movements and is assumed to be associated with reproduction ceremonies. In many cases, the female mask distinguishes from the male one by the absence of a crest on top of the head.